Recommendations from the National Strategy to Eliminate Child
Abuse and Neglect Fatalities
Identify children and families most at risk of a maltreatment
fatality. This is key in knowing when and how to intervene. It is recommended
that states undertake a retrospective review of child abuse and neglect
fatalities to help identify family and systemic circumstances that led to child
maltreatment deaths. Ensuring that the most vulnerable children are seen and
supported is a critical element of this process.
- Sharing data electronically and in real time. This will have an
immediate impact on improving child protection decision-making by state and
- Reviewing life-threatening injuries. From abuse and neglect this
is an important part of the picture when it comes to preventing maltreatment
fatalities and should be included in the child death review process.
Children who are exposed to one type of violence, both within
the past year or over their lifetimes, are at far greater risk of experiencing
other types of violence. For instance, a child who has physically assaulted in
the past year would be five times as likely also to have been sexually
victimized and more than four times as likely also to have been maltreated
during that period.
Eight percent of all youth in the nationally representative
National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV) sample had seven
or more different kinds of victimization or exposures to violence, crime, and
abuse in the past year. These polyvictimized youth had a disproportionate share
of the most serious kinds of victimizations, such as sexual victimizations and
parental maltreatment. They also had more life adversities and were more likely
to manifest symptoms of psychological distress.
The National Human Trafficking Hotline has received reports of
22,191 sex trafficking cases inside the U.S. since 2007.
- The National Center for Missing & Exploited Children
estimated in 2016 that 1 in 6 endangered runaways reported to them were likely
sex trafficking victims.
- On a global scale, the
International Labor Organization estimates that there 4.5 million people trapped
in forced sexual exploitation.
Between 2004 and 2013, the number of suspects in criminal
matters referred to U.S. attorneys for commercial sexual exploitation of
children (CSEC) offenses increased by 54%, from 2,972 to 4,579 suspects. The
number of defendants prosecuted in cases filed in U.S. district court with a
CSEC charge increased by 98% during this period, from 1,405 to 2,776 cases. In
2013, CSEC offenses made up 3.3% of all suspects prosecuted in U.S. district
court, up from 1.5% in 2004.
Human trafficking reports in the U.S. increase every year. A
total of 8,042 cases of human trafficking were reported in 2016, a 35% jump
over 2015. This increase is mostly due to the spreading of awareness of human
trafficking and the National Human Trafficking Hotline. In 2016, 2,042
survivors contacted the Hotline directly which is a 24% increase from 2015.
According to reports, sex trafficking victims were most often trafficked by
their intimate partners, while labor trafficking victims were often recruited
through a job offer. Labor trafficking soared by 47% but is still widely
underreported. Due to a lack of awareness, labor trafficking often goes
unrecognized compared to sex trafficking.
Partner and Sexual Violence
Physical Violence by an Intimate Partner
Sexual Violence by an Intimate Partner
Physical violence by an intimate partner was experienced by
almost a third of women (32.4%) and more than a quarter of men (28.3%) in their
- Nationally, severe physical violence was experienced by 23.2% of
U.S. women and 13.9% of U.S. men during their lifetime.
- Sexual violence by an intimate partner was experienced by 1 in 6
women (16.4%) and 1 in 14 men (7.0%) during their lifetime.
Violence Experienced as a Minor
More than 1 in 14 women in the U.S. (7.0% or approximately 8.5
million women) reported having first experienced completed rape before the age
- Nearly 1 in 3 (30.1%) female victims of completed rape
experienced it first between 11 and 17 years of age and 1 in 9 (11.2%) reported
that it occurred when they were age 10 or younger.
Violence Experienced by Race/Ethnicity
In the U.S., half (49.5%) of multiracial women, 45.6% of
American Indian/Alaska Native women, 38.9% of non-Hispanic White women, 35.5%
of non-Hispanic Black women, 26.9% of Hispanic women, and 22.9% of Asian/
Pacific Islander women experienced some form of sexual violence during their
- Nationally, almost a third (31.9%) of multiracial men, 23.1% of
American Indian/Alaska Native men, 19.4% of non-Hispanic Black men, 18.5% of
Hispanic men, 16.5% of non-Hispanic White men, and 9.4% of Asian/Pacific
Islander men experienced some form of sexual violence during their lifetime.
Sex of Perpetrators
In the U.S., over one quarter of American Indian/Alaska Native
women (28.0%) and multiracial women (25.7%), 1 in 6 non-Hispanic White (16.3%)
and non-Hispanic Black (16.2%) women, 1 in 7 Hispanic (14.5%) women and 7.6% of
Asian/ Pacific Islander women experienced stalking at some point in their
- Approximately 7.5% of multiracial men, 7.1% of non-Hispanic
Black men, 6.2% of Hispanic men, and 5.0% of non-Hispanic White men in the U.S.
were victims of stalking at some point in their lives.
- The majority of female stalking victims (84.8%) were stalked by
only male perpetrators.
- Of male victims, 43.0% were
stalked by only male perpetrators and 45.7% were stalked by only female
Across all forms of sexual violence, the majority of female
victims reported that their perpetrators were male.
- The majority of male victims of completed or attempted rape reported
only male perpetrators with no statistically reliable state estimates. The
majority of male victims who were made to penetrate someone else reported only
female perpetrators. Similarly, the majority of male victims of sexual coercion
reported only female perpetrators.