Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine

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Orthopaedics & Sports Medicine Definitions

Achilles Tendinitis: The Achilles tendon is a thick band that attaches your calf muscle to your heel done. Achilles tendinitis is usually described as an inflammation (swelling) of the Achilles tendon, although it is actually more correctly described as tiny tears in the tendon caused by overuse.

Achilles Tendon Rupture: The Achilles tendon is a thick band that attaches your calf muscle to your heel bone. The Achilles tendon can rupture if the tension from a sudden, forceful contraction of the calk muscle becomes too great. This often occurs in stop-and-go activities like tennis or basketball.

Ankle Sprain: An ankle sprain is the stretching, tearing or rupture of any of the ligaments that support the ankle. A ligament is a strong band of tissue that connects 2 bones to support and stabilize a joint.

Syndesmotic Ankle Sprain: A syndesmotic ankle sprain is a tear of the ligaments above the ankle that stabilize the bones of the lower leg. This ligament supports the ankle when a person walks, runs, jumps and lands.

Anterior Compartment Sundrome: Compartment syndrome is a condition where major nerves and arteries in the lower leg may be pinched by pressure caused from surrounding structures. Anatomical structures in the lower leg are grouped into compartments.

Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a condition that is caused by muscle or bone pain and inflammation of the front/middle part of the lower leg.

Plantar Fasciitis: Inflammation (swelling) of the plantar fascia (a band of connective tissue that helps support the arch of the foot).

Female Athlete Triad: The term "female athlete triad" refers to three health conditions seen in women who are involved in sporting activities: eating disorders, amenorrhea (absence of menstrual cycles) and osteoporosis (soft bones). Eating disorders include any form of weight loss that is unhealthy - severely limiting food intake, use of laxatives, over exercising, and binging and purging (eating large amounts of food, followed immediately by a session of forced vomiting). Amenorrhea is the lack of menstrual cycles due to a decrease in hormone levels. Osteoporosis is a decrease in bone density that can lead to fractures and other bone-related problems.

Sickle Cell Disease: Sickle cell disease is a disorder of the red blood cells where the cells are abnormally shaped. This disorder is passed on from parents to their children.  This abnormality can result in painful episodes, serious infections, anemia, and damage to body organs. In the United States, sickle cell anemia affects mainly African Americans and Latino Americans, people whose ancestors came from Mediterranean countries or East India are also at increased risk.