William Gower, Ph.D.

Professor, College Of Medicine Molecular Medicine

Professor, College Of Medicine Molecular Pharmacology & Physiology

Professor, College Of Medicine Pathology & Cell Biology

Professor, College Of Medicine Surgery

College Of Medicine Molecular Medicine

Research Chemist, James A. Haley VAMC

Contact Info 13000 Bruce B. Downs Blvd.
Tampa, FL 33612

Academic Email: wgower@health.usf.edu


  • PHD, Biochemistry, Ohio State University, 1980
  • MS, Biology, Villanova University, 1976
  • BA, Biology, University of Delaware, 1972

Interdisciplinary and Emerging Signature Programs

  • Cardiovascular

Research Interests

  • Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a member of a family of natriuretic peptides that includes brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). ANP regulates a variety of physiological functions, including natriuresis, diuresis, vasodilation, steroidogenesis and cell division. ANP can affect these processes through multiple pathways within which it can function as a hormone, neuropeptide and paracrine regulatory peptide. Although ANPs major role is to function as a cardiac hormone, its biosynthesis in numerous non-cardiac tissues, e.g. aorta, lung, kidney, thymus, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, that also express receptors for ANP (NPRA and NPRC), points to its role as an autocrine or paracrine regulatory peptide.
  • Our group has shown that the cardiac hormones, ANP and BNP, affect stomach function, i.e. acid secretion and motility. Within the stomach ANP is co-expressed with 5-hydroxytryptamine in specialized endocrine cells called enterochromaffin (EC) cells. ANP, acting via the NPRA receptor, stimulates somatostatin release from both human and rat distal stomach (antrum). In the rat antral mucosa, ANP and somatostatin secretion are linked by paracrine feedback pathways. ANP secretion in the antrum is regulated by intramural cholinergic and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) neurons; cholinergic neurons inhibit and PACAP neurons stimulate ANP secretion. Using both the isolated perfused rat stomach and the isolated luminally perfused mouse stomach we have shown that ANP has a dual effect on gastric acid secretion; stimulatory at low doses and inhibitory at high doses. Current work focuses on the identification of the major physiological stimulus of gastric ANP release, characterization of the mechanism of ANP regulation of gastric acid secretion, elucidation of the potential natriuretic peptide hormonal pathway between the heart and the GI tract, examination of the signal transduction mechanisms of the NPRC receptor. The long term goal of our studies is to better understand the integration of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems.


  • American Heart Association (Member, 2005 - Present)
  • American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (Member, 2004 - Present)
  • American Physiological Society (Member, 2000 - Present)
  • American Gastroenterological Society (Member, 1995 - Present)

Recent Publications

  • Zervox, EE.Franz, MG.Salhab, KF.Shafii, AE.Menendez, J.Gower, WR.Rosemurgy, AS. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition improves survival in an orthotopic model of human pancreatic cancer. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 4(6) : 614-9http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11307097
  • Venkatasubbarao, K.Ahmed, MM.Mohiuddin, M.Swiderski, C.Lee, E.Gower, WR.Salhab, KF.McGrath, P.Strodel, W.Freeman, JW. Differential expression of transforming growth factor beta receptors in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Anticancer research. 20(1A) : 43-51http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10769633
  • Vesely, DL.Vesely, BA.Eichelbaum, EJ.Sun, Y.Alli, AA.Gower, WR. Four cardiac hormones eliminate up to two-thirds of human breast cancers in athymic mice. In vivo (Athens, Greece). 21(6) : 973-8http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18210743
  • Martin, DT.Kopolovic, R.Gower, WR.Steinberg, SM.Cloutier, CT.Carey, LC. Colloid vs. crystalloid resuscitation in experimental hemorrhagic pancreatitis. Current surgery. 41(3) : 189-92http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6744942
  • Vesely, DL.Eichelbaum, EJ.Sun, Y.Alli, AA.Vesely, BA.Luther, SL.Gower, WR. Elimination of up to 80% of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas in athymic mice by cardiac hormones. In vivo (Athens, Greece). 21(3) : 445-51http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17591353
  • Addisu, A.Gower, WR.Landon, CS.Dietz, JR. B-type natriuretic peptide decreases gastric emptying and absorption. Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.). 233(4) : 475-82, 2008. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18367637
  • Eichelbaum, EJ.Sun, Y.Alli, AA.Gower, WR.Vesely, DL. Cardiac and kidney hormones cure up to 86% of human small-cell lung cancers in mice. European journal of clinical investigation. 38(8) : 562-70, 2008. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18717826
  • Vesely, BA.Eichelbaum, EJ.Alli, AA.Sun, Y.Gower, WR.Vesely, DL. Four cardiac hormones cause cell death of melanoma cells and inhibit their DNA synthesis. The American journal of the medical sciences. 334(5) : 342-9, 2007. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18004088
  • Vesely, BA.Eichelbaum, EJ.Alli, AA.Sun, Y.Gower, WR.Vesely, DL. Four cardiac hormones eliminate 4-fold more human glioblastoma cells than the green mamba snake peptide. Cancer letters. 254(1) : 94-101, 2007. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17399891
  • Farese, RV.Sajan, MP.Yang, H.Li, P.Mastorides, S.Gower, WR.Nimal, S.Choi, CS.Kim, S.Shulman, GI.Kahn, CR.Braun, U.Leitges, M. Muscle-specific knockout of PKC-lambda impairs glucose transport and induces metabolic and diabetic syndromes. The Journal of clinical investigation. 117(8) : 2289-301, 2007. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17641777
  • Eichelbaum, EJ.Vesely, BA.Alli, AA.Sun, Y.Gower, WR.Vesely, DL. Four cardiac hormones eliminate up to 82% of human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells within 24 hours. Endocrine. 30(3) : 325-32, 2006. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17526945
  • Gower, WR.Carter, GM.McAfee, Q.Solivan, SM. Identification, regulation and anti-proliferative role of the NPR-C receptor in gastric epithelial cells. Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 293(1-2) : 103-18, 2006. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16786190
  • Vesely, BA.Alli, A.Song, S.Sanchez-Ramos, J.Fitz, SR.Gower, WR.Vesely, DL. Primary malignant tumors of the heart: four cardiovascular hormones decrease the number and DNA synthesis of human angiosarcoma cells. Cardiology. 105(4) : 226-33, 2006. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16534199
  • Vesely, BA.Eichelbaum, EJ.Alli, AA.Sun, Y.Gower, WR.Vesely, DL. Urodilatin and four cardiac hormones decrease human renal carcinoma cell numbers. European journal of clinical investigation. 36(11) : 810-9, 2006. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17032349
  • Vesely, BA.Fitz, SR.Gower, WR.Vesely, DL. Vessel dilator: most potent of the atrial natriuretic peptides in decreasing the number and DNA synthesis of human squamous lung cancer cells. Cancer letters. 233(2) : 226-31, 2006. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15893414
  • Vesely, BA.Song, S.Sanchez-Ramos, J.Fitz, SR.Solivan, SM.Gower, WR.Vesely, DL. Four peptide hormones decrease the number of human breast adenocarcinoma cells. European journal of clinical investigation. 35(1) : 60-9, 2005. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15638821
  • Saba, SR.Garces, AH.Clark, LC.Soto, J.Gower, WR.Vesely, DL. Immunocytochemical localization of atrial natriuretic peptide, vessel dilator, long-acting natriuretic peptide, and kaliuretic peptide in human pancreatic adenocarcinomas. The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society. 53(8) : 989-95, 2005. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15879575
  • Vesely, BA.Alli, AA.Song, SJ.Gower, WR.Sanchez-Ramos, J.Vesely, DL. Four peptide hormones' specific decrease (up to 97%) of human prostate carcinoma cells. European journal of clinical investigation. 35(11) : 700-10, 2005. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16269020
  • Gower, WR.Vesely, BA.Alli, AA.Vesely, DL. Four peptides decrease human colon adenocarcinoma cell number and DNA synthesis via cyclic GMP. International journal of gastrointestinal cancer. 36(2) : 77-87, 2005. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16648657
  • Vesely, BA.Song, S.Sanchez-Ramos, J.Fitz, SR.Alli, AA.Solivan, SM.Gower, WR.Vesely, DL. Five cardiac hormones decrease the number of human small-cell lung cancer cells. European journal of clinical investigation. 35(6) : 388-98, 2005. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15948900
  • Yang, J.Gallagher, SF.Haines, K.Epling-Burnette, PK.Bai, F.Gower, WR.Mastorides, S.Norman, JG.Murr, MM. Kupffer cell-derived Fas ligand plays a role in liver injury and hepatocyte death. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 8(2) : 166-74, 2004. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15036192
  • Mohapatra, SS.Lockey, RF.Vesely, DL.Gower, WR. Natriuretic peptides and genesis of asthma: an emerging paradigm? The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 114(3) : 520-6, 2004. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15356551
  • Vesely, DL.Clark, LC.Garces, AH.McAfee, QW.Soto, J.Gower, WR. Novel therapeutic approach for cancer using four cardiovascular hormones. European journal of clinical investigation. 34(10) : 674-82, 2004. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15473892
  • Dietz, JR.Landon, CS.Nazian, SJ.Vesely, DL.Gower, WR. Effects of cardiac hormones on arterial pressure and sodium excretion in NPRA knockout mice. Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.). 229(8) : 813-8, 2004. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15337836
  • Dietz, JR.Vesely, DL.Gower, WR.Landon, CS.Lee, SJ.Nazian, SJ. Neutralization of proANP (1-30) exacerbates hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 30(9) : 627-31, 2003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12940879
  • Murr, MM.Yang, J.Fier, A.Gallagher, SF.Carter, G.Gower, WR.Norman, JG. Regulation of Kupffer cell TNF gene expression during experimental acute pancreatitis: the role of p38-MAPK, ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK, and NF-kappaB. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 7(1) : 20-5, 2003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12559181
  • Gower, WR.McCuen, RW.Arimura, A.Coy, DA.Dietz, JR.Landon, CS.Schubert, ML. Reciprocal paracrine pathways link atrial natriuretic peptide and somatostatin secretion in the antrum of the stomach. Regulatory peptides. 110(2) : 101-6, 2003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12527142
  • Gower, WR.Dietz, JR.McCuen, RW.Fabri, PJ.Lerner, EA.Schubert, ML. Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide secretion by cholinergic and PACAP neurons of the gastric antrum. American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology. 284(1) : G68-74, 2003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12488235
  • Gower, WR.San Miguel, GI.Carter, GM.Hassan, I.Farese, RV.Vesely, DL. Atrial natriuretic hormone prohormone gene expression in cardiac and extra-cardiac tissues of diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 252(1-2) : 263-71, 2003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14577601
  • Vesely, BA.McAfee, Q.Gower, WR.Vesely, DL. Four peptides decrease the number of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. European journal of clinical investigation. 33(11) : 998-1005, 2003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14636304
  • Gower, WR.Premaratne, S.McCuen, RW.Arimura, A.McAfee, Q.Schubert, ML. Gastric atrial natriuretic peptide regulates endocrine secretion in antrum and fundus of human and rat stomach. American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology. 284(4) : G638-45, 2003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12631561
  • Gower, WR.Sanberg, PR.Brown, PG.Salyani, S.Pasqual, CJ.McGrogan, M.Good, RA.Engelman, RW. hNT neurons express an immunosuppressive protein that blocks T-lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production. Journal of neuroimmunology. 125(1-2) : 103-13, 2002. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11960646
  • Vesely, DL.San Miguel, GI.Hassan, I.Gower, WR.Schocken, DD. Four cardiac hormones increase circulating concentrations of luteinizing hormone and testosterone. Endocrine. 17(2) : 145-50, 2002. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12041917
  • Vesely, DL.San Miguel, GI.Hassan, I.Gower, WR.Schocken, DD. Atrial natriuretic hormone, vessel dilator, long-acting natriuretic hormone, and kaliuretic hormone decrease the circulating concentrations of total and tree T4 and free T3 with reciprocal increase in TSH. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 86(11) : 5438-42, 2001. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11701719
  • Vesely, MD.Gower, WR.Perez-Lamboy, G.Overton, RM.Graddy, L.Vesely, DL. Evidence for an atrial natriuretic peptide-like gene in plants. Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.). 226(1) : 61-5, 2001. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11368240
  • Gower, WR.Salhab, KF.Foulis, WL.Pillai, N.Bundy, JR.Vesely, DL.Fabri, PJ.Dietz, JR. Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide gene expression in gastric antrum by fasting. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology. 278(3) : R770-80, 2000. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10712300
  • Lai, P.Nazian, SJ.Gower, WR.Landon, CS.Dietz, JR. Increased bioactivity of rat atrial extracts: relation to aging and blood pressure regulation. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. 55(8) : B390-5, 2000. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10952360
  • Yang, Q.Gower, WR.Li, C.Chen, P.Vesely, DL. Atrial natriuretic-like peptide and its prohormone within metasequoia. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine (New York, N.Y.). 221(3) : 188-92, 1999. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10404035
  • Vesely, DL.Gower, WR.Dietz, JR.Overton, RM.Clark, LC.Antwi, EK.Farese, RV. Elevated atrial natriuretic peptides and early renal failure in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 48(6) : 771-8, 1999. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10381153
  • Denham, DW.Franz, MG.Denham, W.Zervos, EE.Gower, WR.Rosemurgy, AS.Norman, J. Directed antisense therapy confirms the role of protein kinase C-alpha in the tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer. Surgery. 124(2) : 218-23; discussion 223-4, 1998. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9706141
  • Norman, JG.Fink, GW.Denham, W.Yang, J.Carter, G.Sexton, C.Falkner, J.Gower, WR.Franz, MG. Tissue-specific cytokine production during experimental acute pancreatitis. A probable mechanism for distant organ dysfunction. Digestive diseases and sciences. 42(8) : 1783-8, 1997. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9286248
  • Zervos, EE.Norman, JG.Gower, WR.Franz, MG.Rosemurgy, AS. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition attenuates human pancreatic cancer growth in vitro and decreases mortality and tumorigenesis in vivo. The Journal of surgical research. 69(2) : 367-71, 1997. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9224409
  • Franz, MG.Norman, JG.Fabri, PJ.Gower, WR. Differentiation of pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells associated with selective expression of protein kinase C isoforms. Annals of surgical oncology. 3(6) : 564-9, 1996. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8915489
  • Poulos, JE.Gower, WR.Sullebarger, JT.Fontanet, HL.Vesely, DL. Congestive heart failure: increased cardiac and extracardiac atrial natriuretic peptide gene expression. Cardiovascular research. 32(5) : 909-19, 1996. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8944822
  • Vesely, DL.Preston, R.Gower, WR.Chiou, S.Epstein, M. Increased release of kaliuretic peptide during immersion-induced central hypervolemia in cirrhotic humans. American journal of nephrology. 16(2) : 128-37, 1996. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8919229
  • Poulos, JE.Gower, WR.Fontanet, HL.Kalmus, GW.Vesely, DL. Cirrhosis with ascites: increased atrial natriuretic peptide messenger RNA expression in rat ventricle. Gastroenterology. 108(5) : 1496-503, 1995. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7729642
  • Vesely, DL.Norsk, P.Gower, WR.Chiou, S.Epstein, M. Release of kaliuretic peptide during immersion-induced central hypervolemia in healthy humans. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine (New York, N.Y.). 209(1) : 20-6, 1995. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7724613
  • Norman, J.Franz, M.Messina, J.Riker, A.Fabri, PJ.Rosemurgy, AS.Gower, WR. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist decreases severity of experimental acute pancreatitis. Surgery. 117(6) : 648-55, 1995. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7539942
  • Norman, JG.Franz, MG.Fink, GS.Messina, J.Fabri, PJ.Gower, WR.Carey, LC. Decreased mortality of severe acute pancreatitis after proximal cytokine blockade. Annals of surgery. 221(6) : 625-31; discussion 631-4, 1995. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7794067
  • Poulos, JE.Gower, WR.Friedl, FE.Vesely, DL. Atrial natriuretic peptide gene expression within invertebrate hearts. General and comparative endocrinology. 100(1) : 61-8, 1995. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8575660
  • Dietz, JR.Vesely, DL.Gower, WR.Nazian, SJ. Secretion and renal effects of ANF prohormone peptides. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 22(2) : 115-20, 1995. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7621603
  • Franz, MG.Winkler, BC.Norman, JG.Fabri, PJ.Gower, WR. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces the expression of carbonic anhydrase II in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 205(3) : 1815-21, 1994. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7529022
  • Vesely, DL.Douglass, MA.Dietz, JR.Gower, WR.McCormick, MT.Rodriguez-Paz, G.Schocken, DD. Three peptides from the atrial natriuretic factor prohormone amino terminus lower blood pressure and produce diuresis, natriuresis, and/or kaliuresis in humans. Circulation. 90(3) : 1129-40, 1994. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8087923
  • Gower, WR.Dietz, JR.Vesely, DL.Finley, CL.Skolnick, KA.Fabri, PJ.Cooper, DR.Chalfant, CE. Atrial natriuretic peptide gene expression in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 202(1) : 562-70, 1994. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8037763
  • Norman, J.Franz, M.Schiro, R.Nicosia, S.Docs, J.Fabri, PJ.Gower, WR. Functional glucocorticoid receptor modulates pancreatic carcinoma growth through an autocrine loop. The Journal of surgical research. 57(1) : 33-8, 1994. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7518883
  • Gower, WR.Chiou, S.Skolnick, KA.Vesely, DL. Molecular forms of circulating atrial natriuretic peptides in human plasma and their metabolites. Peptides. 15(5) : 861-7, 1994. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7984506
  • Vesely, DL.Gower, WR.Giordano, AT.Friedl, FE. Atrial natriuretic peptides in the heart and hemolymph of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica: a comparison with vertebrates. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. B, Comparative biochemistry. 106(3) : 535-46, 1993. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8281751
  • Gower, WR. Mechanism of glucocorticoid action. The Journal of the Florida Medical Association. 80(10) : 697-700, 1993. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8270904
  • Vesely, DL.Gower, WR.Giordano, AT. Atrial natriuretic peptides are present throughout the plant kingdom and enhance solute flow in plants. The American journal of physiology. 265(3 Pt 1) : E465-77, 1993. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8214054
  • Godellas, CV.Fabri, PJ.Knierim, TH.Rosemurgy, AS.Gower, WR. Hepatic function after porto-systemic shunt. The Journal of surgical research. 52(2) : 157-60, 1992. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1740938
  • Godellas, CV.Gower, WR.Fabri, PJ.Knierim, TH.Giordano, AT.Vesely, DL. Atrial natriuretic factor: a possible new gastrointestinal regulatory peptide. Surgery. 110(6) : 1022-7, 1991. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1836070
  • Godellas, CV.Gower, WR.Fabri, PJ. Posttranslational gastrin processing depends on tumor morphology. Surgery. 108(6) : 1102-7; discussion 1107-8, 1990. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2247836
  • Gower, WR.Ellison, EC.Knierim, TH.Elkhammas, EA.O'Dorisio, TM.Fabri, PJ. Gastrinoma in vitro: morphological and physiological studies of primary cell cultures. Gastroenterology. 98(4) : 936-54, 1990. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2179034
  • Gower, WR.Fabri, PJ. Endocrine neoplasms (non-gastrin) of the pancreas. Seminars in surgical oncology. 6(2) : 98-109, 1990. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2156332
  • Fabian, MA.Fabri, PJ.Knierim, TH.Gower, WR. Fundusectomy-induced hypergastrinemia is not due to acid inhibition alone. Surgery. 106(6) : 1103-6; discussion 1106-7, 1989. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2588115
  • Fabri, PJ.Fabian, MA.Gower, WR.Knierim, TH. Is there a fundic factor which regulates G cells in the antrum? The Journal of surgical research. 47(1) : 8-11, 1989. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2739402
  • Gower, WR.Buzogany, JA.Ellison, EC.Knierim, TH.Fabri, PJ. Control of gastrin release in cultured gastrinoma-derived G cells. Surgery. 104(2) : 424-30, 1988. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2899916
  • Campagnolo, D.Gower, WR.Fabri, PJ.Sparks, J.Mekhjian, HS.O'Dorisio, TM.Ellison, EC. Effect of somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995) on molecular species of gastrin in gastrinoma. Surgery. 102(6) : 982-7, 1987. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2891204
  • Ellison, EC.Gower, WR.Elkhammas, E.Woltering, EA.Sparks, J.O'Dorisio, TM.Fabri, PJ. Characterization of the in vivo and in vitro inhibition of gastrin secretion from gastrinoma by a somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995). The American journal of medicine. 81(6B) : 56-64, 1986. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2879448
  • Elkhammas, EA.Gower, WR.Woltering, EA.O'Dorisio, TM.Sparks, J.Fabri, PJ.Ellison, EC. Effect of secretin on gastrin release from gastrinoma cells in vitro. Surgery. 100(6) : 948-53, 1986. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3787478
  • Fabri, PJ.Gower, WR.Weber, C.Tuttle, S. Hyperparathyroid glands contain G-17 and G-34 gastrin. The Journal of surgical research. 41(3) : 333-7, 1986. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2876130
  • Coticchia, JM.Lessler, MA.Carey, LC.Gower, WR.Mayer, AD.McMahon, MJ. Peritoneal fluid in human acute pancreatitis blocks hepatic mitochondrial respiration. Surgery. 100(5) : 850-6, 1986. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3775654
  • Gower, WR.McSweeney, EM.Fabri, PJ. Hyperplastic G cell responsiveness in vitro. Surgery. 98(6) : 1045-53, 1985. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3906974
  • Gower, WR.McSweeney, EM.Dyben, TE.Fabri, PJ. Identification of gastrin-producing cells in cell cultures and smears: an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) technique. The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society. 33(10) : 1087-9, 1985. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3900196
  • Steinberg, SM.Gower, WR.Martin, D.Carey, LC.Cloutier, CT. Experimental pancreatitis does not produce pulmonary hypertension. Surgery, gynecology & obstetrics. 157(6) : 530-3, 1983. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6648772
  • Fabri, PJ.Weber, CJ.Gower, WR.Reemtsma, K. Hypogastrinemia in streptozotocin diabetes with islet transplantation--reconstitution. The Journal of surgical research. 34(5) : 432-7, 1983. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6405099
  • Steinberg, SM.Dehring, DJ.Gower, WR.Vento, JM.Lowery, BD.Cloutier, CT. Prostacyclin in experimental septic acute respiratory failure. The Journal of surgical research. 34(4) : 298-302, 1983. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6339818
  • Fabri, PJ.Johnson, JA.Gower, WR. What's new with G-17? Surgery. 92(5) : 884-6, 1982. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7135209
  • Gower, WR.Carr, MC.Ives, DH. Deoxyguanosine kinase. Distinct molecular forms in mitochondria and cytosol. The Journal of biological chemistry. 254(7) : 2180-3, 1979. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/218928

Positions Held

  • Acting ACOS Research & Development (Research & Development Service, James A. Haley VAMC 2007 - 2007)
  • Professor (Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida 2002 - 2007)
  • Research Integrity Officer James A. Haley VAMC 2005 - 2007)
  • Director of Research (Surgery Service, James A. Haley VAMC 2001 - 2007)
  • Associate Professor (Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida 1993 - 2002)
  • Associate Professor (Department of Physiology & Biophysics, College of Medicine, University of South Florida 2001 - 2002)
  • Assistant Professor (Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida 1989 - 1993)
  • Clinical Assistant Professor (Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida 1988 - 1990)
  • Assistant Professor (Surgery, College of Medicine, Ohio State University 1981 - 1987)