A standardized patient (also called a simulated patient or SP) is a lay person trained to enact a clinical encounter (“case”) for the purpose of training and/or testing medical personnel. The SP then portrays this "case" as accurately, consistently, and realistically as possible for each student. The portrayal may be in an exam format or for training/instructional purposes. The exam method allows the students to be evaluated on the information they obtain from the SP, their interpersonal interaction with the SP, and their ability to correctly process the information they obtain (i.e. make a diagnosis, etc.).