1. A working knowledge of the different systems of providing medical care including the governance of these organizations and the roles of physicians in providing care and in managing these systems.
2. Sufficient training about medical economics, including contract negotiations, so that trainees can evaluate different employment opportunities and make plans for a career that is satisfactory for them.
3. The ability to apply a knowledge of the mechanics of insurance schemes, coding and billing so that reimbursement for professional services can be sought without violating the law.
4. The desire and ability to serve as a patient advocate.
5. An understanding of the function of a transplant committee and the ability to guide patients through the pre-transplant evaluation.
6. The ability to partner with health care managers and other providers.
7. The ability to use the entire health care system to provide the services the patient needs.
8. The ability to utilize support groups, such as the Celiac Sprue Association and Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation, to facilitate patient care and provide community support for patients with chronic gastrointestinal disorders.